30 posts categorized "Pharmaceutical Chemistry"

04/07/2014

Pharmacy Students, Leaders Unite for Pharmacy Legislative Day at Capitol

PCPMore than a dozen student pharmacists from University of the Sciences' Philadelphia College of Pharmacy gathered at the Pennslyvania Capitol for the Pennsylvania Pharmacists Association's (PPA) Pharmacy Legislative Day on Wednesday, April 2.

The students and their faculty advisors helped to “paint” the Capitol white, wearing their identifying lab coats and pushing the importance of “Pharmacists: We Make a Difference!” More than 250 pharmacy students from seven schools of pharmacy across the Commonwealth, as well as more than 80 pharmacists, walked the halls of the Capitol, participated in the Pharmacy Rally, and made legislative visits.

Pharmacy Legislative Day attendees met with a significant number of legislators or their staff and delivered packets of information to any legislative offices for which visits were not able to be scheduled.  The visits covered important issues of the profession focusing on pharmacy benefit managers' regulation and transparency, fair pharmacy audits, and expanded immunization opportunities. This valuable opportunity for PPA members to have their voices heard - and to stress the importance of issues facing pharmacy today - was an important and crucial step in educating legislators about pharmacists and their concerns.

Each of the pharmacy schools had displays showcasing information on the value pharmacists provide and performed various health related screenings. Information on medication adherence, smoking cessation, immunization awareness, hypertension assessment, heart health, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk assessment, and blood glucose was displayed in the East Wing Rotunda throughout Pharmacy Legislative Day. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy’s table focused on medication adherence and taking medications appropriately. The PPA also arranged for group tours of the Capitol and some special legislative meetings for students.

USciences' pharmacy students who participated, include: Stephanie Yenner PharmD'14, Priya Patel PharmD'14, Monica Huon PharmD'14, Courtney Spina PharmD'15, Kevin Farrow PharmD'15, Matthew Garin PharmD'15, Breanna Kester PharmD'16, Fidelia Bernice PharmD'16, Colleen D'Amico PharmD'16, Kevin Pak PharmD'19, Justin George PharmD'19, and Antonella Frattarelli PharmD'15. Pharmacy professor Dr. Dan Hussar is also pictured here.

03/18/2014

WOLB Talk 1010 Highlights PCP's First Female Graduate

HayhurstIn observance of Women's History Month, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy alumna Susan Hayhurst was recognized as a "pioneer female pharmacist" on Baltimore's WOLB Talk 1010 on March 18.

After graduating from the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia in 1857, Hayhurst served on the College's staff and ran its pharmaceutical department for many years. In 1883, at the age of 63, Hayhurst became the nation's first woman pharmacist, when she graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.

Click here to listen to the segment.

Video: Pharmacy Experts Discuss Hotly Debated Painkiller Zohydro on NBC10

Dr. Andrew Peterson, Dean of Mayes College of Healthcare Business and Policy; and Dr. Dan Hussar, Remington Professor of Pharmacy, recently shared their expertise regarding the hotly debated painkiller, Zohydro, on Philadelphia's NBC10 @ Issue. The program aired on Sunday, March 16, and is attached below in two 5-minute clips:

At isssue

Part 1: NBC @ Issue
Part 2: NBC @ Issue (Profs featured here)

03/14/2014

Pharmacy, Health Policy Experts to be Featured on NBC10 @ Issue on Sunday

At issueThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approval of the potent opioid painkiller Zohydro ER has been met with fierce criticism, both locally and across the nation. Tune into Philadelphia's NBC10  @ Issue on Sunday, March 16, at 11:30 a.m., as University of the Sciences' pharmacy and health policy experts discuss this drug in further detail.

Andrew Peterson PharmD, PhD, Dean of Mayes College of Healthcare Business and Policy; and Dan Hussar, PhD, Remington Professor of Pharmacy, joined reporter Tracy Davidson for a discussion regarding the pros/cons of this drug, as well as its potential dangers and health implications.

NBC10 @ Issue is a weekly public affairs discussion program that takes an in-depth look at local, state and national issues and politics. Watch NBC10 @ Issue every Sunday at 11:30 a.m. on NBC10, or at 6:30 p.m., on NBC10.com

02/19/2014

First Pharmacy Students Now Trained in Advanced Life Support

BinghamWith critical care pharmacy surfacing as a staple in intensive care, prospective pharmacists now complete high levels of life support training to increase patient survival.

Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) is a team-based response strategy used to optimize the survival of patients in life-threatening cardiac emergencies. Pharmacist participation on these rapid-response teams is associated with lower mortality rates, emphasizing a need for future pharmacists to get trained.

“Pharmacy students on their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience rotations in the hospital setting will likely encounter code situations. Many of the treatment algorithms require pharmaceutical intervention, and it is valuable for pharmacy students to be involved and educated on how to treat patients in these situations,” said Meghan Tolan PharmD’14, who became ACLS certified in 2013.

Prior to taking the course, students are expected to understand pharmacological aspects specific to cardiopulmonary arrest and reach proficiency in identifying cardiac arrhythmias. Basic Life Support for Healthcare Provider certification is also required.

“As part of the curriculum at USciences, student pharmacists receive didactic education regarding ACLS that is reinforced through high-fidelity mannequin simulation,” said Angela L. Bingham PharmD, BCPS, BCNSP, (pictured above) an assistant professor of clinical pharmacy at USciences' Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (PCP).

To achieve ACLS certification, students must then complete a 12-hour training program through the American Heart Association. Developing their skills, students practice and perform these life-saving interventions at an on-campus simulation laboratory.

Three PCP students have completed the certification thus far, including Tolan, Julia Weiner PharmD’14, and Michael Flacco, Jr., PharmD’15.

“By developing fundamentals in basic life support, management approaches for various life-threatening situations, related pharmacology, and effective resuscitation team dynamics, Julia, Meghan, and Michael are ready to save lives when they become licensed pharmacists,” said Dr. Bingham.

Trained critical care pharmacists will use their expertise to assist in a variety of scenarios as part of an interdisciplinary team. To find more information on ACLS certification, email Dr. Bingham at a.bingham@usciences.edu.

Article written by Christine Luczka
University of the Sciences Marketing and Communications Dept.

Pharmacy Student Values MLK Day of Service Experience

Mlk dayAditi Bhogal PharmD'17 shares her experience from the University’s MLK Day of Service on Jan. 20.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Day commemorates a national leader who helped our overcome segregation, ignorance and prejudice. This year was the first year Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and the entire University, celebrated MLK Jr., Day, by cancelling classes and encouraging students to develop and/or participate in volunteering events. Generation Rx, a patient care initiative developed by The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy and funded by the Cardinal Health Foundation, is an educational program that increases public awareness of prescription medication abuse and encourages health care providers, community leaders, parents, teens, and college students to actively work to prevent abuse.  APhA-ASP partners with Cardinal Health on this educational program to expand the breadth and depth of this important initiative to the communities surrounding our nation’s schools and colleges of pharmacy. 

At our PCP-APhA chapter of Generation Rx, we tried to carry on the message of MLK. Jr., of overcoming segregation, ignorance, and prejudice by having an interactive workshop with pharmacy students and faculty about prescription drug abuse. The workshop was titled “Be Part of the Conversation.” The workshop included a presentation, which presented facts, ideas about preventing drug abuse, pharmacist roles in preventing prescription drug abuse, and the importance current trends and data surrounding this. This was followed by an interactive activity including drug abuse questionnaires and pretend patient counseling. The purpose of this was to get the conversation going about the unique position pharmacists are in to help prevent prescription drug abuse.


The most rewarding activity in this workshop was the discussion component. We discussed important questions such as policy changes that could be needed, efforts that could be taken at a nationwide, local, and campus level. One of the primary activities we found needed to be focused on was just an awareness of the physiological and medical effects of the body when prolonged drug use occurs. Another issue we focused on was the stigma attached to mental illnesses and addiction, as opposed to conditions like diabetes and heart disease.  One of the key components we realized we could do on a campus level is to have presentations/awareness on the pathophysiology of addiction, both mentally and on the body and how that ties into the most commonly abused drugs. Another idea we had was to integrate conversation and steps towards intervention in our Pharmacy jobs/rotations/volunteering. The Generation Rx “Be Part of the Conversation” workshop was the perfect way for students and faculty to come together, discuss, and take steps towards a more knowledgeable, cohesive, and tolerant society, much like the vision Martin Luther King, Jr., had for our society.

02/06/2014

The Biggest Mistakes Transfer Students Make

Viggiani_aimeeChoosing which college to attend is a huge decision for students. Whether they’ve earned their associate’s degrees from community colleges and ready to move on to earn their bachelor’s degrees, or currently enrolled in four-year schools that aren’t the right fit, one-third of all students transfer at least once before earning a degree.

Aimee Viggiani, associate director of transfer admissions, was recently featured in two articles which provide helpful tips for transfer students. She said, "All too often, students wait until too late in their college careers to ask why a certain class didn't transfer. Even if you don't need the credit right away, you may need it in the future. So ask transfer credit questions as soon as possible."

01/20/2014

We Will Try Resolutions Again but Pharmacy May Need a Revolution!

By Dr. Daniel A. Hussar, the Remington Professor of Pharmacy at University of the Sciences' Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. He serves as the author and editor of The Pharmacist Activist newsletter (http://www.pharmacistactivist.com) from which this editorial was taken.

For many individuals and organizations, the arrival of a new year is the time to determine resolutions to be accomplished. Although I have not designated them specifically as "resolutions," some of my editorials in the Pharmacist Activist have addressed what I consider to be the priorities for our profession of pharmacy (please see "The 'Tyranny of the Urgent' Must Not Compromise our Commitment to our Priorities," [May 2012 issue] and "Priorities for our Profession" [February 2011 issue] of the Pharmacist Activist).

Most of the priorities/resolutions I have identified in earlier editorials have been recognized as challenges for decades and could be recited on an annual basis. As I again read the two editorials mentioned above, my assessment is that there has been very little progress made in addressing important issues. I accept my share of the responsibility for this limited progress—I need to do more!

I recognize that pharmacists and the leaders of our profession do not have any obligation to read or agree with anything I write or recommend. And often they don't. There can very well be concerns and priorities that are more important than the ones that I identify, and/or I may not be clear enough, persuasive enough, or bold enough in communicating my recommendations. However, I continue to contend that there are challenges that pharmacy must effectively and urgently address. This time I will call them "Resolutions" and many of my comments that follow will be very familiar. I have limited this commentary to five areas. There are many more that are also deserving of our attention. They are provided for the purpose of generating discussion, action, and better ideas and recommendations.

Resolutions for pharmacy

  1. Individual pharmacists must demonstrate more commitment, passion, and activism on behalf of our profession. It starts with me/us! What have we done as individuals to advance our profession and to address the problems that exist? If we have done nothing, we forfeit our right to complain about or criticize what others are doing or not doing. We must start by being members and, optimally, active participants in our professional associations. In my opinion, every pharmacist and pharmacy student should be a member of the American Pharmacists Association, the one national pharmacy organization that is positioned to represent the entire profession. We also have a responsibility to be members of the state and local associations of pharmacists that represent the entire profession. In addition, there are many other associations with focused/specialized programs and services in which membership and participation will be of great value for pharmacists with specific practice interests and responsibilities.

    I strongly encourage not only involvement but activism of pharmacists as individuals in programs and initiatives that will promote and advance our profession. However, as active as we may be as individuals, our sphere of influence is limited, and the resources and strength of associations with a large membership is essential.

  2. Our national pharmacy associations must be more effective and more accountable. Our profession needs an organizational structure that will serve and advance the interests of pharmacy in a much more effective manner than is being accomplished through our current system. Our national associations give primary or exclusive attention to self-preservation and growth of their individual membership, programs, and finances. As important as these things are, not enough attention is being given to identifying and taking action on the issues that are of the greatest importance for the profession as a whole. Indeed, it often appears as if the national associations are competing with each other more than they are collaborating with each other.

    Our national associations and our leaders need to be more accountable by responding to concerns experienced by tens of thousands of practicing pharmacists such as understaffed and stressful workplace environments that increase the risk of errors and harm to patients. Issues such as the abuse and overdose deaths from prescription products containing hydrocodone or oxycodone cry out for leadership and initiatives that will greatly reduce these tragedies. But how does pharmacy respond? With conflicting opinions from the national organizations as to whether hydrocodone combination products should be transferred from Schedule III to Schedule II. Our profession and the public deserve better!

    The importance of building the strength and effectiveness of pharmacy at the national level can't be overstated, as this will also be essential for success with respect to the following resolutions.

  3. The Vision for 2015 must be implemented. In late 2004 the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP), comprised of the leaders of the national pharmacy associations, developed the following vision statement that was endorsed by all of the major national pharmacy practitioner organizations:

    "Pharmacists will be the health care professionals responsible for providing patient care that ensures optimal medication therapy outcomes."

    This vision statement is followed by a discussion titled, "Pharmacy Practice in 2015," that embraces the patient-centered role of the pharmacist, and pharmacists doing in practice what we have long been saying we are capable of doing. This is a bold initiative from which patients and the profession of pharmacy can greatly benefit, and which demonstrates a positive outcome when our national associations work with each other.

    The year 2015 is a goal and not a rigid deadline. However, we are only one year away from 2015, and it is appropriate to assess what progress has been made over the last 10 years. There are patient-centered practice accomplishments of individual pharmacists and individual associations. However, these accomplishments are for the most part isolated and few in number compared with what needs to be done to implement the vision. What happened to the progressive vision for which there was such agreement in 2004? It would appear that the national associations that developed the vision statement did not continue to collaborate, but went their separate ways. They should be accountable in explaining why there has not been substantive progress in working together and attaining this vision. Instead, the priority of the JCPP appears to be to revise the vision statement. The new statement is reported to be:

    "Patients achieve optimal health and medication outcomes with pharmacists as essential and accountable providers within patient-centered, team-based health care."

    Will JCPP be accountable to pharmacists in describing its lack of involvement/progress in attaining the vision for 2015? Will the national associations be as accountable with respect to their responsibility in attaining the revised vision as they are in expecting their members to be accountable in providing the health care described?

  4. The profession of pharmacy must establish a model prescription benefits and services program. The vast majority of prescription benefit programs administered by pharmacy benefit managers, insurance companies, and government agencies are seriously flawed. They fall far short in using the knowledge and skills of pharmacists and in assuring optimal effectiveness and safety of drug therapy for patients. Numerous efforts to improve these programs have failed, and many programs are getting worse. We can't depend on others to design a program that will assure the quality of medications and the services of pharmacists that will also be cost-effective. We must do it ourselves!

    Many of our national pharmacy associations do not presently provide a prescription benefit program for their own employees that includes the services and other quality measures that they expect their pharmacist members to provide to patients. This situation should be given immediate attention. The national associations should work together to identify the resources and expertise needed to establish a model prescription benefit program and network of participating pharmacists in the Washington, D. C. area. This program would first be made available to employees of the national pharmacy associations. As soon as possible, it should be made available to legislators and government officials and their staffs. There would be a considerable cost to establish such a program but I can't think of a more important investment for our national associations. I have full confidence that the quality and value of such a program would be quickly recognized and publicized to the extent that others would also adopt it.

  5. The profession of pharmacy must do much more to provide fulfilling employment opportunities. Several factors (e.g., national economic challenges, many new colleges of pharmacy) have converged to create a situation in which many pharmacists are having difficulty in obtaining employment. Colleges of pharmacy and the pharmacy associations must do much more to assist pharmacists in obtaining positions. Some contend that when the Vision for 2015 is implemented there will be a shortage of pharmacists. However, that is not the reality now and will not be soon. But it does provide all the more reason to move as quickly as possible to implement the Vision.

    Additional strategies must be developed to assist pharmacists and students who will be graduating soon to have fulfilling employment responsibilities. For example, two independent pharmacies might each fund one-half of a full-time position. Also important is the recognition that some employers of pharmacists will reduce the staffing of pharmacies with the expectation that pharmacists will not leave because employment may not be available elsewhere. It is very difficult for employee pharmacists to challenge management regarding understaffing or a stressful workplace environment because they might be placing their job at risk. The pharmacy associations and colleges of pharmacy have a responsibility to do more to assist pharmacists in obtaining employment in which they can provide the expertise and services that patients need.

The list goes on but these five resolutions will suffice for now. Not only are they important but there is an urgent need to be effective in addressing them. Changes in health care are occurring at an unprecedented pace. If we are not successful in responding to these challenges soon, a revolution in our profession will be needed!

11/08/2013

Obtaining Health Insurance that Isn't Understood Using a System that Isn't Working - And the Situation Will Get Worse if there is not Compromise!

By Dr. Daniel A. Hussar, the Remington Professor of Pharmacy at University of the Sciences' Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. He serves as the author and editor of The Pharmacist Activist newsletter (http://www.pharmacistactivist.com) from which this editorial was taken.


The "old" health care system had serious deficiencies. Almost every participant (e.g., pharmaceutical companies, hospitals, physicians, pharmacists) could determine the prices to be charged for products and services and expect to be compensated in the amounts requested. However, there were valid questions as to whether this health-care model was financially sustainable. In addition, there was little or no attention given to assessing the quality of health care provided and the outcomes for patients.

The "new" health care system (i.e., the Affordable Care Act [Obamacare]) that is being implemented has serious deficiencies. The health-care providers who provide services, care, and products for patients have little participation or influence in the determination of the scope and terms of the program or the compensation they will be provided. Instead, government agencies, insurance companies, and organizations such as pharmacy benefit managers are making these decisions. The scope and services of the new system raise valid questions as to whether this health-care model is financially sustainable. In addition, there is inadequate attention given to assuring the quality of health care provided and the outcomes for patients.

The old and new systems are markedly different, yet many of the questions and concerns are very similar. Is progress really being made or have we just replaced one set of problems with other problems of equal or greater importance? I do not defend or advocate the return of the old system. However, the new system is seriously flawed and will collapse as a consequence of the problems and concerns with which it is burdened unless major changes are made. We can and must do better!

Continuing concerns: The current problems that individuals have encountered in attempting to learn more about the health-care benefit options and to choose a particular type of coverage are just the latest of a long series of concerns regarding the parameters and implementation of Obamacare. Indeed, the secrecy surrounding the development and approval of the legislation that has enabled the changes in the health care system was an early indicator of the problems ahead (Please see my editorial, "Health Care Reform - Let's Start Over and Do It Right!" in the January 2010 issue of The Pharmacist Activist).

The current problems have, however, greatly increased the awareness of the public of the challenges that exist. These challenges include, but are not limited to, employers reducing the number of full-time positions and increasing the number of part-time positions; decisions of employers to change health benefit programs for employees and retirees; insurance companies canceling policies; the President making changes in the terms and implementation of the program without accompanying legislative authority; whether individuals can continue to use the same physicians and pharmacies; other terms of the health coverage options; access to needed information using the online network; and the cost of the coverage options.

Positives of Obamacare: The sharp differences of opinion that exist regarding certain provisions of Obamacare have polarized discussions and precluded consideration of areas of agreement and constructive change. I would identify the following as components of the legislation for which I feel there is strong support:

  • The opportunity for many individuals who do not currently have health insurance to obtain such coverage at an affordable cost or, if necessary, have the coverage subsidized.
  • The provision that individuals with pre-existing conditions would be able to obtain health insurance at an affordable cost.
  • The increased age at which young adults are permitted to be included in their parents' health insurance coverage.
I would like to think that a focus on these areas of general agreement could be a starting point for constructive discussion of the issues on which there is disagreement. However, the acrimony and polarization that have resulted from the differing philosophical, ideological, and political positions on these issues, make it difficult to be optimistic that agreement regarding a health care system can be reached.

Is compromise possible?: To date, it has not been possible to reconcile the two markedly different positions regarding Obamacare. Advocates extol the benefits and claim the authority of the legislation that established it. Opponents have such strong concerns that they strive to defund the program and/or repeal the legislation. There is seemingly no hope for compromise. However, this impasse is a "lose-lose" situation for both advocates and opponents, Democrats and Republicans.

Advocates for Obamacare have the position of strength and some feel there is no need for any compromise. But hardly a day goes by without an announcement that a large employer is making substantial changes in its health-care benefits or that an insurance company is canceling thousands of policies. Does anyone really think that these changes will be of greater benefit for employees and/or individual policy holders? Of course not! The employers and insurance companies are making these changes to protect their own interests.

The implementation of the early phases of Obamacare has revealed serious conceptual and operational flaws and limitations. And consumers are not yet even close to learning the options regarding health care providers and services and the cost of the insurance coverage. In my opinion, there will be additional problems that will be worse than the ones that are recognized now. The problems and challenges may be of a magnitude that the program will fail. Advocates for the program must be willing to compromise.

Opponents of Obamacare must also be willing to compromise. Their criticisms of the program have not been accompanied by suggested revisions or recommendations of viable alternatives. Their position would maintain the present system, and that should no longer be considered acceptable. There is an important need for progressive changes in the provision of health care services and insurance, and compromise will be essential for the attainment of this goal.

I would like to think that there are legislators who have the personal character to rise above partisan politics and provide bipartisan leadership for the Congress and Administration in forging a compromise on these issues. To not do so risks the failure of Obamacare and the possible development of alternative health care systems and insurance coverage that are even more problematic and divisive.

Where are the health care providers?: Health care services and insurance coverage for such are of the greatest importance for the recipients of these services. But these issues are also of great importance for the providers of health care services (e.g., pharmacists, physicians, nurses). To what extent have health care providers and our professional organizations been involved in the development and implementation of Obamacare, as well as active participants in the discussion/debate regarding the benefits and deficiencies of the program? Our involvement and influence have been limited at best. Some would suggest nonexistent or ineffective.

Our organizations of health professionals must do more! We are in the best position to identify the parameters of a program that would assure the effectiveness, safety, and quality of health care. We can work effectively with those with administrative and financial expertise in developing those components of the program. However, experience has demonstrated that when health professionals are not involved and/or effective in the development of health care benefit programs, important decisions are made by others and we must cope with the consequences.

If the current impasse among our legislators continues and a compromise is not reached, there could be an even greater opportunity for our organizations of health professionals to fill the void with progressive recommendations.

Even if the legislators do reach a compromise, it is essential that our organizations become more involved, both independently and in collaboration. To address just one of the important issues, I recommend that the American Pharmacists Association and the American Medical Association work together to introduce and seek support for a provision that patients have freedom of choice in selecting their physicians and pharmacies in health care programs that are funded by the government. I am certain that there would be strong public support for this recommendation.

10/23/2013

PCP Students Participate in River City Festival for Fourth Year

Blog post submitted by Dr. Grace Earl and Brian Nguyen PharmD’14.

The River City Festival is held each year in the Fishtown section of Philadelphia.  Students enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program have participated for the fourth year in a row on Saturday, Oct. 5.  The students were invited to participate as part of Hahnemann University Hospital’s “Wellness Tent.”
 River City Festival 2013
Five students in their fourth professional-year from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy at University of the Sciences participated in educating festival-goers about a variety of healthcare topics.  The students seen in this picture, from left to right, include: Samantha Bryant PharmD’14, Kyle Flannery PharmD’14, Brian Nguyen PharmD’14 (standing), Judy Parks PharmD’14, and Vivi Jung PharmD’14.

Samantha Bryant, of Baltimore County, Maryland, presented an informative and interactive display about poison prevention.  One of the major goals of poison prevention presented was to prevent children from taking their parents’ medication.  A poster was made with both common candies and medicines that one would take.  Many participants had difficulty differentiating between the candy and the medicine.  This display highlighted the importance of child safety and proper storage of medications from children.
 
Kyle Flannery, of Lakewood County, New Jersey, highlighted smoking cessation through medication education.  Kyle differentiated between many approaches that one could take to quit smoking and highlighted the most effective approach, which is through the use of smoking cessation medications.  Judy Parks, of Bucks County, presented the steps to take for osteoporosis prevention.  Judy emphasized osteoporosis prevention in women over the age of 50 and reached out to that audience.  She emphasized that adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D was necessary for the maintenance of bone structure.  
 
Vivi Jung, of Delaware County, spoke about one of the biggest healthcare topics affecting Americans today: hypertension.  Vivi offered free blood pressure monitoring for all participants and counseled participants about good lifestyle habits to maintain a normal blood pressure.   Brian Nguyen, of Delaware County, focused on heart disease prevention awareness and he noted the risk factors that one could control to prevent heart disease. He also focused on counseling participants about medications that could be used to prevent a heart attack or stroke such as aspirin. 
 
Students from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy were pleased with the knowledge they imparted on festival-goers and look to be participating in the River City Festival next year.  Sandy Scholtz, Experiential Field Supervisor, and Yvonne Phan, PharmD, assistant professor of the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration participated at the event.  Grace Earl, PharmD, assistant professor, coordinated the event.

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